What are the three basic stages of translation? Describe what happens at each stage.

An RNA molecule has the following percentages of bases: A = 23%, U = 42%, C = 21% and G = 14%. Is this RNA single stranded or double stranded? What would be the percentages of bases in the template strand of the DNA that contains the gene for the RNA?

What are the three basic stages of transcription? Describe what happens at each stage.

What happens to the pre-mRNA before it leaves the nucleus? What is the purpose of each of these modifications?

What are the three basic stages of translation? Describe what happens at each stage.

In individuals with sickle cell anemia one base pair in their DNA is changed. How does this impact the protein that is made? How does this lead to the symptoms of the disease?

Many antibiotics work by interfering with translation in bacteria. If you were going to design an antibiotic, which step of translation do you think would be the best to block? Why?

Early proposals regarding the genetic code considered the possibility that DNA served directly as the template for protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, what difficulties would such a system pose?

The redundancy of the genetic code means that some amino acids are specified by more than one codon. The codon most commonly used for an individual amino acid varies among different species. For example, UUA might be used to code for leucine more often in one species, while CUU might be used more often in another. Speculate on a reason for this bias in codon usage and why it varies between species……………………

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