State the functions of the following hormones. (3 Marks) 2 (i) Gastrin (ii) Secretin (iii)Cholecystokinin

a) State a biochemical and a physiological function of the following minerals.(5 Marks)
i. Calcium
ii. Phosphorous
iii. Potassium
b) The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is composed of three (3) enzymes.
(5 Marks)
i. Name the enzymes that make up the complex.
ii. Which vitamins are important cofactors/prosthetic groups for these enzymes?
Link the prosthetic group to the enzyme.
c) Calculate the standard free – energy change of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme
Glucose -1- phospate ? glucose -6-phosphate.
Given that, starting with 20mM Glucose -1-phosphate and no Glusoce -6-phosphate,
the final equilibrium, mixture at 25°?? and pH 7 contains 1.0mM Glucose-1-phosphate
and 19mM Glucose -6-phospate.
Does the reaction in the direction of Glucose -6-phosphate formation proceed with a
loss or gain of free energy? (R = 8.315J./mol.K (5 Marks)
d) i) Explain what hormones are. (2 Marks)
ii) State the functions of the following hormones. (3 Marks)
(i) Gastrin
(ii) Secretin
e) Konberg and his colleagues incubated soluble extracts of E.Coli with a mixture
dATP, TTP, dGTP and GCTP all labeled with 32P in the ? -??h??????h?????? group. After
a time, the incubation mixture was treated with trichloroacetic acid which precipitates
the DNA but not the nucleotide precursors. The precipitate was collected and the
extent of precursor incorporation into DNA was determined from the amount of
radioactivity present in the precipitate. (5 Marks)




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