Q1. COMPULSORY. Write explanatory notes on any THREE of the following. a) Human geography and its sub-disciplines (10 marks) b) Process through which man has affected nature/ environment (10 marks) c) Spatial interaction (10 marks) d) Concept of region (10 marks) Q2. Citing suitable examples, discuss the role of the transport sector in the economic development of a country. (20 marks) Q3.’Rapid population growth rates may be an asset or a liability’. Discuss this in light of the developed and developing countries. (20 marks) Q4.EITHER a) Evaluate Alfred Werber’s Least Cost Theory (1909) as an explanation of industrial location. OR (20 marks) b) Using a well labeled diagram describe the Concentric zone Model to illustrate the spatial organization of urban land use. (20 marks) Q5. EITHER a) Discuss the factors affecting the location of agricultural activities.(20 marks) OR b) Discuss the factors needed for industrial production and how they control spatial distribution of industries in a region. (20 marks) Q6. Describe the main causes of underdevelopment in the developing countries (20 marks)

1. The heart of George Homans’ exchange theory lies in the set of fundamental propositions. Critically discuss these propositions.
2. Critically discuss the five (5) basic principles of symbolic interactionism according to George Herbert Mead.
3. Outline Talcott Parson’s structural functionalism and comment on its relevance in explaining social process in Kenya today.
4. Conflict theory is said to have emerged as a response to the criticisms leveled against the structural functionalist theory. Ralf Dahrendorf is one of the important conflict theorists in sociology. Discuss the contribution of Ralf Dahrendorf in the development of this (conflict) perspective.
5. Provide an overview of the varieties of feminist theories and comment on their relevance in understanding today’s society.
6. Either discuss the major arguments of critical theory or discuss what Ethnomethodology is and outline its various stands.
7. Write short notes on any four of the following as explained by Karl Marx and others.
i. Human nature
ii. Alienation
iii. Karl Marx and labor
iv. Materialist conception of history
v. Structure of capitalism
vi. Neo-functionalism
8. Discuss any two of the following contemporary theories of modernity:
i. The juggernaut of modernity
ii. The Risk Society
iii. The Cultural Theory and
iv. “McDonaldization” of society







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