Explain the pathophysiology of Type 1 diabetes

There are two parts to this assignment. You are required to complete both parts. Word limit for the assignment is 2200 words.

Part 1:

Carol is 17 years old and was diagnosed with Type I diabetes at the age of 7 years. Carol has had a recent hospital admission for dehydration and high blood glucose. During the admission Carol was found to be 6 weeks pregnant. Prior to the admission she had been experiencing weight loss and changes in mood.

With reference to the above case study;
1. Explain the pathophysiology of Type 1 diabetes. Focus your answer on the following (suggest approx. 400 words):
o What is the role of the immune system in the destruction of beta cells and development of Type 1 diabetes?
o How does destruction of beta cells affect glucose regulation within blood?
2. The following are some acute effects that a lack of blood glucose control has had on Carol; she has experienced these signs and symptoms either shortly before or during her hospital admission. Explain the pathophysiology of these signs and symptoms (i.e. abnormal physiological processes due to the disease): (suggest approx 800 words):
o Excessive thirst
o Frequent urination
o Increased appetite
o Unexplained weight loss
o Hyperglycaemia (raised serum glucose levels) – you may make reference to ketoacidosis but are not required to go into detail
o Mood changes

3. Consider the potential effects on the developing embryo and foetus during the first trimester of Carol’s pregnancy. (suggest approx. 100 words):

Part 2:

Explain the argument that there is a relationship between genetic susceptibility, obesity and the development of Type 2 diabetes (approx. 1200 words):

Your answer should include the following elements:
o Definition – How would you define obesity? Consider classification based on BMI.
o Epidemiology – What evidence is there of an association between obesity and Type 2 diabetes?
o Genetic predisposition – It is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility towards the development of Type 2 diabetes. Explain what this means and how it relates to the association between obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
o Aetiology – Explain the effect of obesity on insulin receptor sensitivity of liver, muscle and adipose tissue; explain how lower insulin sensitivity can lead to Type 2 diabetes…………

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