1.At the moment fossils are the key sources of industrial energy in the world.
i. Formation of petroleum (3marks)
ii. The key processes involved in petroleum processing(5mks)
b. State the main causes of coal(4mks)
c. Explain each of the following terms: (5mks)
ii. Renewable energy
iii. Greenhouse effect
v. Acid rain
2. Evolution of solid earth is explained by the principles of primary and secondary differentiation of matter from the intial cloud of gased that sorrounded the sun after the ”BIG BANG”.
a. Distinguish between primary and secondary differentiation of geo-elements during the chemical evolutiob of the earth (2mks)
b. By giving appropriate examples in each case, explain classification of geo-elements on the basis of their geochemical affinities. (6mks)
c. Explain the rules that govern formation of stable ionic chemical lattices of compounds. (4mks)
d. With the aid of a well labeled diagram, explain the modern understanding of the internal structure of the earth. (6mks)
3 (a). With the aid of a well labeled diagram where appropriate, explain the structure of the atmosphere. (14mks)
(b). Discuss the effects of acid rain on each of the following environmental components: (8mks)
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